Skipping round the net, tonight, following from one link to another, I came across this video showing Sarah Willis, a french horn player, being filmed playing a sort of horn inside a CT scanner. I thought this might be of interest to others, as well as me. The Biomedical NMR Lab at the Max Planck Institute in Göttingen, Germany made a valveless horn out of copper for her to play. I don't know what the mouthpiece was made of, but it was connected by a long plastic tube to the horn, so the sound quality was not of the best; the horn was too big to fit inside the scanner with her, and would doubtless have interfered with the images. The scan shows a side view of her face, while she plays different notes, scales, diminuendos and crescendos, and accented notes, legato and staccato, so you can see the way the shape and position of her tongue varies - which it does to a very high degree. Here's a link to the YouTube film: And this is a link to an interview between Peter Iltis, professor of Kinesiology at Gordon College in Massachusetts, and Sarah Willis about this research: With best regards, Jack E.